Twenty years ago, aviation and airline travel looked very different than it does today. Prior to the year 2000, flights were very cheap, partly due to a good economy and cheap oil, and most passengers received complimentary meals on domestic flights. In the early 2000’s, this changed. In an effort to cut costs, airlines stopped serving meals on domestic flights. This elimination was just the beginning of changes implemented in aviation and airline travel.
Before the turn of the century, security in airports was much more lax and oftentimes, security screeners were unable to detect potential threats in passengers luggage or on their person. This was in part due to the frequent turnover rate in the workplace – a result of poor wages and benefits, as well as inefficient training. After the horrific events that occurred on September 11th, 2001, many new policies and procedures were implemented in airlines. Most significantly, was the creation of the Transportation Security Administration, otherwise known as the TSA, to assist in guarding U.S. airports. Identification is now required and must match the airline ticket, shoes need to be removed at checkpoints, and all baggage, both checked and carry-on, have to be screened. Additionally, many items are now restricted from being brought onto the aircraft, including carrying on any liquid container larger than 3.4 ounces.
In 2002, bag screening devices were introduced to airlines to assist in bag screening. Then, in 2010, the screening process was increased tenfold with the implementation of Advanced Imaging Technology. These are full-body scanners that can detect non-metallic weapon explosives, as well as other threats that could potentially be concealed under layers of clothing. Passengers may also be required to go through an additional “pat-down” screening process. The result created longer lines and wait times moving through security. In an effort to speed up the process, passengers are able to complete TSA Pre-Check applications.
Prior to 2001, the cockpit in aircrafts were not nearly as secure as they are today. Now, the cockpit is completely sealed during the flight, with pilots locked tight behind impenetrable doors. Save for bathrooms breaks, the pilots do not leave the cockpit. Flight attendants are thoroughly trained to protect the cockpit during the times the pilots vacate. Additionally, pilots are able to go through training to allow them to carry firearms, via a program called “Federal Flight Deck Officer”.
In addition to security upgrades and technology advancement, there have been some adjustments to the internal design of aircrafts. Many of the seatback screens, screens that are placed on the back of the seat for entertainment, are being removed for shorter flights. In place of these, some airlines are instead offering onboard streaming to allow users to use their own devices for in-flight entertainment. The legroom has also been cut significantly in many economy class seats. The average legroom is about 30 to 31 inches today. This summer, United Airlines will be adding an additional 21 seats to some of their domestic flights, further shrinking seat space, and other airlines have already implemented their own version of this project.
While it is no longer a vital component to our existence as it once was for ancient humankind, a campfire can still inspire discussion and storytelling among the group and is essential to a great camping trip. Don’t let your trip be a bore and know how to build a campfire worth remembering.
Create Your Fire Pit
It is crucial to be aware of your surroundings when building a fire so as not to start a wildfire. If your campsite has a designated fire pit, use it.
If you’re in the backcountry or a more rugged area, you will need to create your own pit. Choose an area that is clear of trees, bushes, and other plant material. Your fire bed should not be on grass, especially dead grass, but rather, on bare earth. If you cannot find a bare area, make your own. Do this by digging and raking away any plant material, ensuring you clear away all dry plant material, as it can easily catch fire.
Once you have an area cleared of plant material, make your fire bed. To do this, gather dirt and place it in the center of your cleared area, shaping the dirt into a 3-4 inch thick platform.
You will need three types of wood from the ground for your fire: tinder, kindling, and fuel. Do not cut whole trees or branches, dead or alive. Live wood will not burn and you’ll be damaging the forest, and dead trees are usually homes for birds and other wildlife.
Tinder: materials like dry leaves and bark, twigs, wood shavings, dry grass and needles, and fluffy fungi are considered tinder. You can also bring your own in the event that the surrounding tinder is wet. Homemade char cloth and dryer lint are good alternatives. Starting with tinder in your campfire is essential to building a great fire. Tinder catches fire easily, but it also burns quickly.
Kindling: typically small sticks, twigs, and branches, about 1” in width. Kindling provides more substance than tinder but doesn’t smother the tinder flame like big logs would. However, kindling also needs to be dry to burn.
Fuel: large pieces of wood. This is what will keep your fire roaring. These pieces of wood do not need to be exceptionally large, like the logs you would use in a fireplace. Instead, gather pieces of wood that are as wide as your wrist or forearm. Any larger and it will take longer for the wood to catch fire.
Lay Your Fire
Pile a few handfuls of tinder into the center of your fire pit, then add kindling to your preferred lay.
Teepee: Lay the kindling over the tinder like you’re building a tent, leaving an opening on the side the wind is blowing against. This method is best used for cooking.
Lean-to: Another method for cooking, stick a long piece of kindling into the ground at an angle over the tinder, pointing into the wind. Then lean smaller pieces of kindling against the longer piece in the ground.
Log Cabin: This method is best for long lasting campfires. Start with a teepee lay and then surround your pile of tinder with kindling, stacking pieces at right angles. The top should consist of the smallest kindling.
Once you have your fire built, ignite the tinder with a match or lighter, blowing lightly at the base of the fire. As the fire grows, add more kindling and fuel to keep the fire going. Always keep the fire small and under control, and never leave it unattended.
Having the ability to fly anywhere on the planet that we choose and arrive at our destination in a matter of hours is an incredible feat that humans have mastered. Easily one of the greatest inventions of all time, the once-thought crazy idea of flying has opened a new world of discovery for people all over the world. But how do these powerful machines work?
What Makes a Plane Fly?
While many think that planes fly simply because they have engines, that actually isn’t the reason sole planes take flight. The engine allows the plane to move forward at a high speed, but it must work with the wings to lift the plane upward. The engine encourages air flow to move quickly over the wings, throwing the air down towards the ground. This, in turn, generates an upward force, or lift, that surpasses the plane’s weight and keeps it in the sky. The wings are able to create lift by changing direction and the pressure of the air.
How Do the Wings Work?
The key to flight is through the wings—but how? Most airplane wings have what is called an airfoil: a curved upper surface and a flat lower surface that creates a cross-sectional shape. A curved airfoil wing will generate lift by deflecting air above and below the wing, while simultaneously altering the air pressure.
As the plane flies forward, the curved part of the wing will lower the air pressure directly above it, moving the plane upward. This happens because the curve of the wing pulls the air around it back down, rather than it moving in a straight line. The air below the wing will dramatically increase in pressure, accelerating the air downward and moving the wing and plane upward.
How Do Planes Steer?
A car and a plan both have a steering wheel, but that’s the only thing both machines have in common. Planes move up and down, are steered side-to-side and stopped using a series of flaps called control surfaces. To steer a plane, you must make the air flow in a different way past the wings on each side. To do this, the plane needs to “lean” into the curve. This involves banking, meaning the plane tilts to one side and one of the wings dips lower than the other. Most of the lift is still moving upward, but some if it will tilt to one side with the wind, allowing the plane to steer in a circle.
Some Other Important Parts
The engine, wings, steering wheel, and the accompanying controls are incredibly important components of a plane, yet they require some other key features. Fuel tanks are a necessity to safely pack fuel inside the plane’s wings. The wheels and tires that are needed for takeoff and landing are retracted into the undercarriage by hydraulic rams when they’re in the sky to reduce air resistance. Additionally, the radio and radar are crucial for navigation and pressurized air cabins allow passengers to breathe properly as air pressure falls.
Men and women have been searching for an earthly paradise since before they invented the wheel or the written word. There have been countless names for it: Atlantis. The Garden of Eden. El Dorado. Today, we just call it Santa Monica.
With its spectacular beaches and an average of more than 300 days of sunshine each year, Santa Monica certainly fits the bill for heaven-on-earth. But beyond the city’s natural beauty, there are a number of landmarks, like the Pier or the Aero Theater—not to mention the Shore Hotel!—that have sealed SaMo’s status as a global destination. So whether you’re taking the legendary Route 66 to its Western endpoint in the heart of the city or flying into LA County’s oldest operating airfield, take a look at the best attractions Santa Monica has to offer!
No list of Santa Monica hotspots would be complete without the Pier. More than 100 years old, the Pier is a Southern California icon that sits atop the beach and hangs above the Pacific Ocean. When you visit, you can get your thrills at Pacific Park, an amusement park that includes a state-of-the-art solar-powered ferris wheel, or check out the fascinating aquarium operated by Heal the Bay, which Shore Hotel is a proud sponsor of. One of the most magical attractions is the Camera Obscura, which uses nothing but natural light to project a live view of the beach.
We couldn’t call ourselves the Shore Hotel without the help of Santa Monica State Beach, which is located right across the street from us. This stretch of sand and sea runs the entire length of the city, so there’s plenty of beach to enjoy. Plus, if you’re hoping to enjoy an oceanside workout on your vacation, Santa Monica is also home to the original Muscle Beach and is complete with parallel bars, ring swings, and more!
This theater, which dates back to the 1940s, is a cinephile’s dream. It regularly offers special screenings and shows classic movies as well as contemporary independent films. When you’re tired after a day in the sun, sit back and enjoy a movie, old-Hollywood style!
You’ll find Palisades Park along the city’s northern coastline. It sits atop gorgeous bluffs and offers stunning views of the ocean. Nature lovers will enjoy the wide variety of trees and other exotic plants on display in the park. There’s also a bevy of public art, from sculptures to Native American totem poles.
When a person decides to venture out into the wilderness for an extended adventure, one of the most important aspects of their travels will be finding the perfect place to set up camp. Here are just a handful of things a camper should look for to identify a great campsite.
Picking a great campsite requires a moderate amount of forethought. Although dusk is the most common time of day to begin settling down in an area, a camper must also consider the effects of the sunrise on their night’s sleep. In order to ensure a good night’s sleep, a camper should pitch their tent in an area that has plenty of natural covering to prevent the bright rays of sunrise from waking them up too early.
A camper should always maintain a healthy sense of self-preservation when choosing a spot for their campsite. Remain vigilant of any potential hazards in an area that would make the spot not ideal as a campsite. Some of the hazards they should look for and avoid are dead trees, dry river beds, large rocks or logs that could be home to venomous snakes, and steep hillsides or cliffs.
Before a camper begins unpacking their tent to set up a campsite, they should be sure to give the ground a thorough inspection. When it comes to choosing a great place to set up a campsite, a camper will want to ensure that the ground has minimal or no mounds that could make sleeping uncomfortable. A camper should also choose to make camp on a level surface for safety reasons.
Nature offers few conveniences the deeper into the wild you go, but a camper can make the experience easier for themselves if they opt to set up their campsite near a stream of water for bathing, a thick set of bushes for waste excretion, and trees to provide firewood. It is also better to follow in the footsteps of campers who came before by using well-worn campsites. This indicates that the site is ideal and popular.
As a camper is traversing through the wild outdoors, they should keep an eye out for a great spot in which to set up their camp so they’re not scrambling to find an area in the dark. It’ll be virtually impossible to choose an ideal campsite once the sun sets. A golden rule of thumb is to leave the camp area cleaner than how you found it.
Many aircraft fly over the U.S., but only a select few partake in the top shows. These airshows can be categorized by history, culture, and specialty.
Aviation has a wonderfully storied past, and as a result, attendees at air shows expect a bit of history. Enthusiasts prepare throughout the year to display their collections. The best historically themed shows include Planes of Fame Air Show in Chino, California; National Warplane Museum Airshow in Geneseo, New York; and the Mid-Atlantic Air Museum WWII Weekend in Reading, Pennsylvania.
There was a time when pilots were looked upon as celebrities, and this celebration of aviators remains alive and well in many parts of the country. Among the best of culture-driven events in America are Wings Over Houston Airshow in Houston, Texas; Great Tennessee Airshow in Smyrna, Tennessee; and Cleveland National Air Show in Cleveland, Ohio.
The state of Florida hosts numerous airshows, as the weather allows spectators and pilots to enjoy themselves throughout the year. Two of the most highly regarded annual airshows are Fort Lauderdale Air Show in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and SUN ‘n FUN International Fly-In & Expo in Lakeland, Florida.
Some shows only come together when pilots’ schedules allow for it. Daytona Beach, Florida hosts one of these: It is not an annual spectator event, but instead the gathering of aviation enthusiasts. Expect such events to fly every other year or so.
There are airshows and then there are air races, and few people know about these races even though they are global events. Reno, Nevada hosts what is regarded as the very best in air racing—the National Championship Air Races. The race is a show unto itself, but the weekend long event also hosts demonstration teams.
Most airshows occur over a weekend. However, one known throughout the aviation community is a fly-in, week-long gathering. Often referred to as just “Oshkosh”, it popularized the town for which it is named. EAA AirVenture Oshkosh is by far the most widely recognized airshow of all time. It’s actually less like a show and more like a vacation! Spectators are not there for the day. They come to spend time in the town of Oshkosh for this one week out of each year.
As technology advances, innovation follows. Throughout the modernization of aircraft, engineers have worked to make planes safer, quieter, and more convenient for passengers. Jet airliners have come a long way, but there will still be plenty of improvements to come. Take a look below at the basic framework of an airplane, including the interior windows and overhead bins as well as the exterior fuselage, wings, turbofans, and empennage.
When the first airliner entered service, it was constructed with square cabin windows. However, after two fatal accidents, investigators found that window corners contributed to cabin pressurization which deteriorated planes’ aluminum-alloy skin. Furthermore, they discovered rounded or oval windows prevent deterioration by improving the distribution of pressurization stressors.
As with most things, the overhead compartment has advanced since its first appearance. In the 1920s, passengers would hang lightweight items on overhead racks made of aluminum and netting, although these were only found about the rear seating. However, in 1969, the arrival of closing overhead storage bins became an industry standard.
The fuselage is the body of the plane. At the front of the fuselage is the cockpit, where pilots operate the aircraft, and it is also the part of the plane where the empennage and wings are attached.
Wings & Winglets
While all parts of a plane are equally important, the wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in the air. As the plane is pushed through the air to create lift, the air resists this motion, and a drag, or an aerodynamic force, transpires; as a result, winglets are tips on the end of the wing that reduce drag.
In efforts to decrease the engine noise and increase its efficiency, engineers began looking to revamp the airplane’s engine. The solution: turbofans. First appearing in the early 1960s, turbofans exhale cold air rearward, eliminating the mixing of the combustion chamber’s hot exhaust.
The empennage is the vertical and horizontal stabilizer and the tail of the airplane. It consists of multiple parts: the rudder, elevators, stabilator, and trim tab. The rudder is a movable piece that allows the plane to turn left or right when activated, and it is connected to the foot pedals in the cockpit of the airplane. The elevator is like the rudder in that it moves the aircraft up or down to make the nose of the airplane move in the appropriate direction. The stabilator is a large piece of material that doubles as a trim tab. The trim tab is a rectangular shaped piece of equipment on the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. The tabs are used to be moved gradually by the pilot to make the aircraft easier to handle.
Thousands of campgrounds are scattered across California and nestled among its 18 national forests. From bare-bones hideaways to luxurious glamping getaways, it’s hard to pick just one spot to visit. The landscape—from redwoods forests to deserts and mountaintops to coastal vistas—offers something for everyone. California’s campgrounds are truly a national treasure, so take a look at some of the top spots to go camping in paradise:
The redwoods of Northern California are ancient—some are over 2,000 years old—and are the tallest trees in the world. A section of the park is recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Site, so visitors can find campsites that allow them to enjoy nature in one of the most breathtaking spots on earth. With three campgrounds in the forest and one overlooking the Pacific Coast at Gold’s Bluff Beach, Redwood National & State Parks offer unforgettable views and attractions.
Spanning Northern to Central California, Big Sur is a must-see destination for any fan of the great outdoors. The home of three Native American tribes (The Ohlone, Esselen, and Salinan), much of the land here is undeveloped, so hikers have the perfect opportunity to enjoy sensational trails and views of the mountains and the coast. Big Sur draws close to three million visitors per year and provides an unparalleled camping experience from its sandy beaches to its rugged coastline.
Covering over 1,100 miles of terrain, Yosemite is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Featuring waterfalls, giant sequoia trees, and tons of wilderness, Yosemite should not be missed. The park is quite popular, with nearly four million visitors per year, and it has also been ranked as one of the top-five national parks for camping. Throughout the park, there are lakes, ponds, hiking trails, and 13 campgrounds that feature tents, RVs, and horse camping.
Further down the coast, you will find Santa Barbara County. Visitors can choose from five different beachfront camping sites, or, if they’d prefer, go glamping instead. The El Capitan Canyon Resort, for example, offers luxurious glamping tents and fully-equipped cabins that come with maid service. There are also unique campground features, such as the ability to rent an iconic airstream camper.
It’s harder to find a more exciting hobby than flying. Regardless of whether you’re taking your first flight or going up for the millionth time, nothing beats the rush of watching the world shrink beneath you as you climb into the clouds. Take it from me: For years, I’ve flown fixed-wing aircraft, and I wouldn’t trade my time in the skies for anything. But before you hop in the pilot’s seat, you’ll first need to earn your pilot’s license. This process isn’t too complicated, but it does require patience, focus, and dedication.
To qualify for a pilot’s license, you must be at least 17 years old, and you must also be able to speak, read, and write perfectly in English (English, interestingly, is the international language pilots and air traffic controllers around the world use to communicate with each other). There is also a medical component in order to be qualify for your pilot’s license that requires you to be in good health and pass a physical examination.
This is one of the easier items to check off the list. You can obtain this by either submitting an application to a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Flight Standards District Office or to an FAA examiner. Conveniently, when you receive your aviation medical certificate, the document you receive at that time doubles as both a student pilot certificate as well as a confirmation of medical fitness, so you can handle two birds with one stone then.
The Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) website includes a database of licensed flight schools if you need to find one. Make sure that you’re comfortable with both the school and the instructor before committing. This stage of the process is where you’ll actually fly; you’ll also need to pay for this time, however, and flight school can cost around $5,000 throughout the learning and licensing process depending on your location. I went to a very affordable flight school at Brown Field in San Diego, California.
Note that some flight schools will require you to take the FAA written exam before they let you into the cockpit, but either way, you’ll need to pass it to earn your pilot’s license. It consists of 60 multiple choice questions, and by the time the two-and-a-half hour test period is over, you need to answer at least 70% correctly in order to make the grade. The test comes with a $70 fee.
Administered by an FAA examiner, the checkride is the last obstacle standing between you and your pilot’s license. It typically lasts between one and two hours with the examiner joining you as a passenger and asking you to perform certain maneuvers and quizzing you on practical test standards (PTS). If you pass—congratulations! You’ll have to file some paperwork with the examiner, but you’ll have earned your pilot’s license.
Steve Farzam is the COO of Shore Hotel that’s based in Santa Monica. His success as a COO is evident in the fact that Shore Hotel currently enjoys one of the top spots when it comes to the hospitality industry in Santa Monica.
However, that doesn’t really comes off as a surprise, especially given Steve’s interest in the hospitality industry from a very young age and his experience in assisting his family in managing their family-owned business, Ocean View Hotel. These both factors have probably what made Steve reach where he is today.
And while that may define his career success, his success as an individual is believed to be far greater by some. Despite his family business and interest in the hospitality industry, Steve decided to go for a paramedic certification. This decision may have been inspired by his strong desire to give it back to the community, which he definitely did in more ways than one can imagine of someone at his level.
After becoming a paramedic, Steve decided that he wants to do something for the community. He ended up joining the Disaster Animal Response Team, a team that consisted of very trained professional tasked with rescuing animals from disaster-hit areas. He brought a lot of value to the team thanks to the professional services he could offer.
His experience working with the team was great, and it’s probably at this time that Steve realized that he doesn’t want to stop there.
This led to Steve joining another team of volunteers that believed in helping the community, after which he is believed to have worked on quite a few things that made the world a better place to live for some people. One of his most noteworthy contributions included spending a lot of time to travel to Louisiana to help people affected by Hurricane Katrina.
However, before joining the new team to help the community in another way, he donated a vehicle to spcaLA – the first community organization he had joined that worked to prevent cruelty against animals. It must have really been a great help to many poor animals whose lives would have been saved using the vehicle.
But then Steve did something that really helped him gain quite a bit of respect from the community as well as some local authorities. He saved a driver’s life stuck in a vehicle following a dangerous accident. And he did so by taking a great risk on his own life.
The driver was in a critical condition when Steve Farzam found him stuck in the vehicle when passing by in his own vehicle. There was probably no one around at that time, and Steve didn’t have much time or things could get worse. So he probably didn’t think much and ended up getting into some level of danger himself, especially given that the vehicle had already started catching fire at this point.
He later found someone luckily that helped made the job a lot easier, but it was Steve’s paramedic skills that came in really handy. He was able to deal with the situation in a professional manner and helped the man prevent succumbing to the critical injuries he faced till help arrived.
This brave effort of Steve was widely appreciated by the community, and even got him the attention of the Burn Institute. He was awarded the Medal of Valor by the Supervisors of San Diego County Board of the Burn Institute, perhaps an extremely rare achievement for a COO.
Then there have also been times when Steve would personally fly to places to feed the poor and hungry people. He has also made generous donations to community organizations in different places that distribute food packets among the less fortunate people.
And apparently, Steve doesn’t hesitate helping the community even if that comes at the cost of a part of his company’s profitability. Shore Hotel is apparently believed to have been the first in Santa Monica to make an effort to adapt and promote eco-friendly initiatives, which can obviously be a brave move to make for a company in a very competitive industry.
Finally, Steve Farzam apparently hasn’t failed to be a great employer as well. His employees are glad to be working for someone that really cares for them and their future.
Steve finds it an important objective of his company to invest in his employees’ education and provide them with regular training, something that would help them advance in their career.